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What Is The Bone Marrow Test?
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What Is The Bone Marrow Test?

A bone marrow test is performed to check how your bone marrow is working properly and producing normal amounts of blood cells. By conducting this test, your healthcare provider will diagnose and monitor various conditions, like bone marrow disorders, blood disorders, and certain types of cancer. Commonly, two types of bone marrow tests are performed.

Bone Marrow Aspiration: During this process, a small amount of bone marrow fluid is removed

Bone Marrow Biopsy: Here, a tiny amount of bone marrow tissue is removed

Both these tests are carried out at the same time.

What Is The Bone Marrow Test?

The cost of the bone marrow aspiration test is Rs. 1500 to Rs. 2500 depending on your location and place. The cost of the bone marrow biopsy test is Rs. 4000 to Rs.10000, but it may vary from area to area. Please check the price of the bone marrow test in Delhi/NCR, your nearby centers and other details.

Test Summary 

Also known as Bone Marrow Examination
Test Type Bone marrow
Bone marrow test includes To check bone marrow disorders, blood disorders, and certain types of cancer
Preparation You need to sign a consent form before the test
Reporting Several days
Test price The cost of the bone marrow aspiration test is Rs. 1500 to Rs. 2500 depending on your location and place. The cost of the bone marrow biopsy test is Rs. 4000 to Rs.10000, but it may vary from area to area.
Also included in Health Insurance Plans
Related tests Blood tests


The Purpose of the Test

The prime objectives of the test are:

  • To identify the cause of problems like red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets
  • Diagnose and monitor blood disorders, including anemia, polycythemia vera, and thrombocytopenia
  • Diagnose bone marrow disorders
  • Detect and monitor certain types of cancers, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma
  • Identify infections that may have just initiated or spread to the bone marrow


Why do you need this test?

Your doctor may refer to this test if your red blood cells, White blood cells and platelet counts are above normal. A healthcare professional will recommend this test.

  • If you have been diagnosed with a disease or health condition involving the bone marrow or blood cells,
  • To decide the stage or progression of a disease
  • To check whether iron levels are sufficient or not
  • To observe the treatment of a disease
  • To investigate a fever of unidentified origin


The Preparation for the Test

You need to sign a form that allows conducting bone marrow tests. Ask questions to your doctor to clear your doubt regarding the test procedure.

The Bone Marrow Test Procedure

Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy tests are performed at the same time. An expert doctor usually performs the tests. You may need to wear a hospital gown before the test. The doctor will check your blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature. A sedative will be given to relax your mind.

During the Test

1. You need to lie down on your side or your stomach, based on which bone will be used for testing. Most bone marrow tests are performed on the hip bone.

2. You will be covered with a cloth so that only the area around the testing site can be seen.

3. An antiseptic will be used to clean the site.

4. You may receive a numbing solution that may sting.

5. A healthcare provider will collect the sample once the area is numbed. You will need to lie down till the end of the procedure.

For a Bone Marrow Aspiration

This test is performed first when the health care provider inserts a needle through the bone and collects bone marrow fluid and cells. When the needle is inserted, you may experience sharp pain.

For a Bone Marrow Biopsy

By using a special tool, your healthcare professional will twist the bone to take out a sample of bone marrow tissue. When the sample is collected, you may feel pressure.

Both tests will be completed within 10 minutes.

After the test, the health care provider will wrap up the site with a bandage.

Always take someone with you while performing the test as you received sedatives.

The Interpretation of Bone Marrow Test Results

Your collected bone marrow sample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis. You may get the results within a few days, but it may take longer.

An expert who has some specializations in analyzing biopsies (pathologist or hematopathologist) will evaluate the samples to check if your bone marrow is making adequate healthy blood cells and to look for abnormal cells.

  • Confirm or rule out a diagnosis
  • Check how advanced your disease is
  • Monitor whether the treatment is working or not


What are the risks of the bone marrow test?

Many people are not comfortable after bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy tests. There could be some soreness at the injection site. But this may dissolve within a few days. Sometimes, your doctor will recommend a pain reliever to assuage the pain. Serious symptoms are very rare, but may include:

      1. Prolonged pain or discomfort at the injection site
      2. Redness, swelling, or excessive bleeding at the site
      3. Fever

Is there an alternative to a bone marrow biopsy?

A peripheral Blood Sample is an alternative to bone marrow biopsy.

What are the signs of bone marrow problems?

    1. Pale skin
      2. Fatigue
      3. Irregular heartbeat
      4. Frequent or prolonged infections
      5. Unexplained or easy bruising
      6. Nosebleeds and bleeding gums
      7. Long-lasting bleeding from cuts

What cancers are detected by bone marrow biopsy?

By using bone marrow biopsy, your doctor will diagnose the following diseases

      1.Blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma
      2. A fever with an unknown cause
      3. Stem cell disorders
      4. Rare genetic diseases

What is the difference between a bone biopsy and a bone marrow biopsy?

A bone biopsy is a test procedure where bone samples are collected (with a special biopsy needle or during surgery) to check out if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. A bone biopsy performs on the outer layers of bone. But in a bone marrow biopsy, the innermost part of the bone is used.

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